CBD Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V

2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG): An endocannabinoid that initiates a physiological response when interacting with the CB1 receptor. 2-AG has a relatively high presence in the central nervous system (body) while anandamide has a higher presence in the peripheral nervous system (brain).

A

Amino Acid: An organic acid containing the amino group NH2

Analgesia: The inability to feel pain, or in medications, the ability to relieve pain (“analgesic”)

Anandamide: An endocannabinoid produced in the brain that activates the CB1 receptor. It has been called the “bliss molecule” and is tightly correlated to creating the rewarding feeling of a “runner’s high” after exercise. 

Antibiotic Resistance: Occurs when bacteria adapt in response to the use of a specific medication, able to bypass medications over time that are designed to kill these bacteria

Antioxidant: Compounds that slow or prevent oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals which may damage the cells of organisms.

Antipsychotic: Commonly a substance that is used to treat psychosis and is believed to act by blocking dopamine nervous receptors

Antitumor: Preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of tumors

Anxiety: An abnormal or overwhelming sense of apprehension and fear often marked by physical signs, such as tension, sweating, and increased heart rate, by doubt of reality, and by self-doubt relating to a person’s inability to cope with such feelings

Ashwagandha: is a plant that has been used in medicinal purposes for at least three thousand years. It is an adaptogen herb known, in ancient chines literature, to calm the heart and quiet the spirit and mind. It operates as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, meaning that it increases the availability of dopamine (a neurotransmitter) in the body. It can also embody the properties of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid, “GABA”, by relaxing the body.

B

Bioavailability: The bioavailability generally refers to the effectiveness of a specific ingestion method. Specifically, this is measured as to how quickly and what percentage of a product which is absorbed into the bloodstream for use by the body. Read more about bioavailability in our article that outlines CBD product usage methods.

Biphasic Response: In simple terms, biphasic means that small and large doses have opposite effects. With THC and other cannabinoids, small doses often stimulate while large doses sedate.

Black pepper oil: is extremely rich in terpenes, vitamins, and minerals and has many beneficial medicinal qualities that are unexpected from such a common kitchen spice. Some of the vitamins and minerals it contains are calcium, manganese, iron, phosphorous, potassium, etc. It is specifically great at providing relief for cramps and muscle spasms as well as inflammation for treating arthritis and gout. Black pepper oil also detoxifies the body and promotes healthy digestion by invoking urination and gastric contractions as well as helps to treat/ prevent bacterial infections of the mouth, colon, digestive system, and urinary tract.

Blood Pressure: Pressure that is exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood vessels and arteries; varies with the muscular efficiency of the heart, the blood volume and viscosity, the age and general health of the individual, and the state of the vascular wall

Broad Spectrum: The term used to describe whole-plant extractions of the hemp plant that have had the phytocannabinoid THC removed following extraction

Butane extraction: is a common hydrocarbon-based extraction method that allows extraction of cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant without extracting undesirable compounds like chlorophyll.

Butane is easy to purge from the concentrated substance at the end of the process and leaves behind a mostly pure byproduct. Unfortunately, butane is highly combustible, meaning that it can be dangerous to work with. Low-quality butane can also contain harmful toxins that can be left behind.

C

Camphene: A terpene that has an earthy aroma and is frequently used for aromatherapy.

Cannabichromene (CBC): The third most common cannabinoid, is non-psychoactive and is thought to have anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and anti-fungal properties. It has also been shown to improve the pain-relieving effects of THC.

Cannabidiol (CBD): CBD is one of the primary cannabinoids of over 100 found in the cannabis plant. This phytocannabinoid is bred to be abundant in hemp strains that are used to create CBD products. The wide range of potential therapeutic uses of this non-psychoactive compound has created a high demand for the cannabinoid.

Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that closely resembles cannabidiol (CBD) in structure.

Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is thought to have antibiotic, antidepressant and pain relief properties.

Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA) is the precursor to Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and Cannabichromene acid (CBCA).

Cannabinoid Profile / Cannabinoid Spectrum: Referring to the types and amounts of cannabis compounds found in a given extract or product. Determined by the cannabinoid and terpene content. The three main types are covered here in our article on spectrums.

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (CB1): CB1 is a g protein-coupled receptor found throughout the body. These receptors are primarily concentrated in the spine and brain.

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 (CB2): CB1 is also a g protein-coupled receptor found throughout the body. These receptors are primarily found in the peripheral nervous system.

Cannabinoid Receptors: Cannabinoid receptors are part of the endocannabinoid system. These receptors are found in two types (CB1 & CB2) throughout the brain and body. The naturally occurring phytocannabinoids and the internally generated endocannabinoid bind to these receptors.

Cannabinoid: A class of diverse chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant. These cannabinoids interact with the cannabinoid receptors found throughout the body and brain in a system called the endocannabinoid system. They alter neurotransmitter release and can be used to help maintain balance in the systems throughout the body.

Cannabinoids are molecules that interact with cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids fall under three classifications: phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, or synthetic cannabinoids.

Cannabinol (CBN) is a psychoactive cannabinoid with about 10% the strength of THC that is thought to provide appetite stimulation, antibiotic, anti-asthmatic, pain relief, and sedative properties.

Cannabis indica is a species of the cannabis genus that is short and bushy. Cannabis indica plants have higher concentrations of CBD and lower concentrations of THC.

Cannabis ruderalis, sometimes referred to as the ditch weed plant, is a small and incredibly resilient species of the cannabis genus that contains low concentrations of THC.

Cannabis sativa is a species of the cannabis genus that is tall and thin Cannabis sativa plants take longer to grow and have lower concentrations of CBD and higher concentrations of THC.

Cannabis Sativa L.: A species of plant in the cannabis genus that refers to both industrial hemp and marijuana, which are both subspecies of Cannabis Sativa L.

Cannabis: The blanket term applied to Cannabis Sativa L., the plant genus that includes both hemp and marijuana

Cardiovascular System: Also known as the “circulatory system,” it is the bodily system that circulates blood and lymph through the body and consists of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands

Caryophyllene is believed to have anti-inflammatory, anti-biological, and antioxidant properties, caryophyllene is a terpene that is present in basil, clove, and black pepper.

CBD Extract: This is a thick, oily substance extracted from hemp. This extract contains cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other plant materials. A hemp extract will be high in CBD and low in other cannabinoids like THC. The levels of each of these components are influenced by the hemp source, extraction method, and further processing methods. These extracts may be sold alone or used as an active ingredient in CBD products.

CBD Flower, also known as hemp flower, CBD flower is a dried hemp bud that has .3% or less THC and 10% to 20% CBD. It is non-psychoactive, meaning it won’t get you high, but provides many of the benefits from other cannabinoids. You typically smoke CBD flower.

CBD Isolate: An isolate is a crystalline powder form of the single CBD molecule created by further processing an extract to remove other cannabinoids, terpenoids, and plant materials. These isolates may be sold alone or used as an active ingredient in CBD products.

CBD Oil: A term commonly used to generally describe CBD products as a whole, and also a descriptor specifically for CBD tinctures.

CBD Powder Typically reserved for CBD isolate. Powders are an easy way to combine CBD with a carrier of your choice.

CBD Tincture is sometimes used interchangeably with CBD oil, in it’s most accurate definition, a tincture is a medicine made by dissolving a drug in alcohol. A CBD tincture is still a concentrated form of CBD, it is just suspended in distilled alcohol instead of a carrier oil.

CBD: Short for cannabidiol, a phytocannabinoid derived primarily from hemp that is non-psychoactive in nature and has shown to possess a variety of therapeutic benefits when ingested by humans or other mammals

CBD-A: Short for cannabidiolic-acid, the naturally occurring raw form of CBD that is produced directly in the plant

CBD-Infused is a product infused with pure CBD.

CBD-Rich Oil is typically a full-spectrum CBD concentrate or a carrier oil that has been infused with CBD concentrate.

CBV: Short for cannabidivarin, it is known as the second most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis sativa

CBVG: Short for cannabigerivarin, it is known as cannabinoid acid

Cannabigerol (CBG): is another important non-psychoactive cannabinoid within hemp. Most strains contain only trace amounts of CBG (1%), however, its properties may still prove to be extremely beneficial for medicinal purposes. More research is needed to make a conclusive statement. However, it operates in the endocannabinoid system with both CB1 and CB2 receptors to increase dopamine levels as well as help regulate sleep and appetite. CBG has been researched for treating glaucoma, cancer, and MRSA.

Cannabichromene (CBC): is one of the most important and promising cannabinoids in recent research. When interacting with the endocannabinoid system, CBC binds to the receptors in the brain that perceive pain, meaning that CBC could offer pain relief comparable to most painkillers, without the side effects. It is also being explored in medical research as a possible alternative for anti-inflammatory benefits related to arthritis.

Cannabinol (CBN): is another important cannabinoid in hemp that is known for its sedating effects as well as its therapeutic addition to the “entourage effect” present in full spectrum hemp oil. CBN occurs naturally in the plant as it matures or when THC is exposed to oxygen or heated. Unlike other sedating medications or supplements, CBN both decreases the amount of time it takes to fall asleep and increases the quality and length of sleep without a sense of drowsiness in the morning. This is caused by the extremely mild psychoactive effect that creates the sense of sleepiness which has an effect comparable to diazepam. It also has many anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties. Medical research is starting to be conducted around its potential uses for cancer and epileptic episodes.

Cannabigerol (CBG): is another important non-psychoactive cannabinoid within hemp. Most strains contain only trace amounts of CBG (1%), however, its properties may still prove to be extremely beneficial for medicinal purposes. More research is needed to make a conclusive statement. However, it operates in the endocannabinoid system with both CB1 and CB2 receptors to increase dopamine levels as well as help regulate sleep and appetite. CBG has been researched for treating glaucoma, cancer, and MRSA.

Chlorophyll: Refers to groups of green pigment molecules found in plants and algae; important for plant photosynthesis

Chromatography is a mechanism to remove unwanted plant material like chlorophyll from CBD oil.

Chronic Pain: A localized or generalized unpleasant bodily sensation characterized by severe physical discomfort, often including emotional distress as a result of this discomfort

Circulatory System: The bodily system that includes the blood, blood vessels, lymphatics, and heart; concerned with the circulation of the blood and lymph throughout the body

Citronellol is a terpene that has a strong citrus base and should smell familiar to anyone who has had to use a mosquito or moth repellent. It has potential medicinal applications for its anti-biological, anti-inflammatory and immune-regulating properties.

CO2 Extraction, the most common extraction method, CO2 extraction involves filtering plants through a series of chambers that control temperature and pressure. This process is able to isolate cannabinoids at a 90% efficiency. The downsides of CO2 extraction are that it is hard to use at scale, requires a lengthy purification process to remove additional material like wax and chlorophyll that can also reduce the terpene flavor profile in the final product.

Cold Press is applying pressure to a material to forcefully remove oil. Cold pressed hemp oil is produced from hemp seeds rather than the stems and leaves. The resulting product contains no CBD.

Concentrate: A concentrated form of cannabis extract often known by another name like wax, shatter, or extract. Often used for dabbing.

D

Dabb is CBD contained in a wax that you consume by exposing to a high temperature, often using a blow torch, and inhaling the resulting vapor. Dabbing is one of the fastest and most bioavailable ways to feel the effects of CBD.

Dabbing: Vaporizing a concentrated form of a cannabis extract by placing it against an extremely hot surface and inhaling the vapors produced. See our guide for more info.

Decarboxylation: The process where naturally occurring acid-form cannabinoids are heated to remove a carboxyl group. This process is as simple as smoking marijuana or heating cannabis in the oven. Temperatures of 200+ degrees Fahrenheit must be used. This form of 'decarbing' or 'activating' is used in marijuana and hemp in order to activate the cannabinoids so they may freely bind to the cannabinoid receptors in your body and brain.

Delta 8: Delta-8 THC, short for delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a cannabinoid found in trace amounts in the cannabis plant. It is similar to the THC found in a majority of cannabis products, which is called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or delta-9, however delta-8 is much less potent than regular THC.

Digestive System: The bodily system that includes the digestive tract, accessory glands, salivary glands, the pancreas, and all glands that secrete digestive enzymes; concerned with ingestion, digestion, absorption of food, and discharge of residual waste

Distillates, or concentrates, are full spectrum compounds that have been stripped of unwanted compounds.

E

e-Liquid / e-Juice / Vape Juice: These liquids are used in vaporizers. They are vaporized via heating to 200+ degrees Fahrenheit and inhaled.

Entourage Effect: The phenomenon by which all of the compounds naturally found in the hemp plant (notably cannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, terpenes, amino acids, and essential fatty acids) work together to increase the absorption, bioavailability, and effectiveness of CBD within the body; produced by whole-plant hemp extractions, such as Full or Broad Spectrum extractions

Ethanol extraction is currently the second most popular method for extracting cannabinoids. It is easier to produce a larger volume of full-spectrum extract with ethanol.

Extract: An extract, most often from hemp, is an oily substance derived from cannabis which includes plant materials, waxes, fatty acids, cannabinoids, and terpenoids. This extract can be consumed directly or used as a base ingredient to create other types of products.

Extraction: The process by which one of several available extraction methods are used to create a phytocannabinoid-rich oil extract from the cannabis plant.

F

Farm Bill refers to the 2014 Farm bill. Section 7606 of this bill paved the way for the legal production of industrial hemp without a permit from the Drug Enforcement Administration. The 2014 Farm Bill only protected those registered under a state’s hemp research pilot program. It required that cannabis contained no more than 0.3% of THC and producers had to meet the requirements set forth by their state department of agriculture.

Fatty Acid: Molecules formed when the body breaks down fat; an important part of the fat-soluble components of living cells and used for energy storage within the body

Free Radicals are unstable atoms that can damage cells. Free radicals are linked to aging and disease. Cannabinoids are potent antioxidants that can interact with free radicals and stop the chain reaction before cells are damaged.

Full Spectrum: Referring to a cannabinoid spectrum containing a full range of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other cannabis compounds in relation to what is commonly found in hemp - including a trace amount of THC.

G

GMO is genetically modified organisms are new varieties of organisms created using genetic modification techniques to produce higher yields, make crops more resistant to infection and pests, or infuse them with extra nutrients and vitamins. The practice of genetically modifying organisms has been around since 12,000 BCE in the form of selective breeding or artificial selection and has recently evolved with the ability to isolate and insert specific genes into organisms to produce desirable traits.

Ginger oil: has many great medicinal properties. It comes from the same family as turmeric and is known to have a very distinct warm and spicy aroma. Its traditional uses are to treat nausea and digestive upset. Ginger can also be used to treat arthritis, colds, and migraines.

h

Hemp Oil: This is a broad term used to describe an oil created from hemp. This could mean an omega-3 rich hemp seed oil or a cannabinoid-rich CBD extract. As a consumer, you should ensure you understand the difference to understand what is in the product you are purchasing.

Hemp Seed Oil: A common binding agent found in CBD products, useful for its ability to allow CBD to interact with endocannabinoid receptors within the body

Hemp: A type of cannabis bred as a fibrous material for use in a wide variety of applications. Hemp contains a low THC content. Hemp is often grown outdoors and is able to be grown in most climates.

Homeostasis: The automatic, natural self-regulating process of any system within the body, promoting hormonal balance and well-being

Human Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a biological system that is present in the central nervous system of mammals. The system is involved in regulating a variety of processes including fertility, immune system function, pregnancy, appetite, pain, mood, and memory.

Humulene is a terpene that has a beer-like odor and has been used as an anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and appetite suppression agent.

I

Immune System: The bodily system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues and is responsible for defending the body from infection

Industrial Hemp: Varieties of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant that contain less than 0.3% THC and that are grown for industrial or agricultural purposes

Inflammation: A localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and painful

Inhalation: CBD can be inhaled either by smoking CBD flower buds, dabbing or by vaping an e-liquid that contains CBD. The benefit of inhalation is greater bioavailability and quicker metabolization.

Integumentary System: The bodily system made up of the skin and its appendages that protect the body from external damage

L

Limonene is a terpene noted for having a strong citrus odor but bitter taste. It has been commonly used as an antifungal and may also be useful in treating gastric reflux.

Linalool is a terpene with a floral scent with notes of lavender and has potential medicinal uses as a sleep aid, pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, and to alleviate psychosis and anxiety.

Liposomes: Small spherical sacs containing hemp oil extract used to increase the bioavailability and effectiveness of a product.

M

Marijuana: A type of cannabis bred for high-THC content for recreational or medical use. Marijuana is grown under precise environmental conditions, often indoors. Federally, marijuana is seen as any cannabis plant containing 0.3% THC or greater by dry weight.

MCT Oil: Short for medium-chain triglyceride oil and most often made from fractionated coconut oil; a common binding agent found in CBD products, used for its ability to effectively allow CBD to interact with endocannabinoid receptors within the body

Memory: The faculty by which the mind stores and is able to recall information

Mental Health: A type of health care that deals with the promotion and improvement of a person’s mental state, emotions, and general feelings of well-being; associated with the treatment of mental illnesses

Muscle System: The bodily system made up of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles, permitting the movement of the body, maintaining posture, and aiding in blood circulation throughout the body

Myrcene is useful for spasms, insomnia, pain, and as an anti-inflammatory, myrcene is a terpene that is found in particularly pungent plants like mangos, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus, and lemongrass.

N

Nanoemulsion: A water-soluble emulsion of hemp extract oil droplets broken into particles averaging 25 nanometers in diameter. This process increases surface area and thus is up to 5x as bioavailable as traditional oil-based products.

Nervous System: The bodily system that includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor organs that receive and interpret stimuli, transmitting impulses and actions to organs throughout the body

Neuroprotective: Serving to protect neurons from injury or degeneration and often associated with brain health

Neurotransmitters are produced by the nervous system in response to health and environmental factors. These signals interact with receptors found on the surface of cells throughout our bodies and provide instruction on how to regulate their activities.

Non-GMO Hemp is hemp that has not undergone selective breeding or any sort of genetic modification. Taking CBD orally refers to eating or drinking and absorbing the CBD through your digestive tract. Many studies have concluded that absorbing CBD through your digestive track significantly decreases bioavailability. Translation—you’ll require more CBD if you consume it orally.

Non-Psychoactive: The term applied to substances that do not get you high or induce detrimental toxicological effects on the mind when ingested

O

Organic hemp is hemp produced by methods that meet the standards of organic farming. The organizations that set the standards for organic farming often prohibit the use of certain pesticides and fertilizers, solvents, synthetic food additives, or processing techniques that involve irradiation.

P

PG: Short for propylene glycol, an odorless, colorless liquid commonly used in vape juices

Pharmaceutical grade is the purest form of a compound. To be considered pharmaceutical grade the compound must exceed 99% purity and contain no binders, fillers, excipients, dyes, or unknown substances. Less than 3% of consumer products are pharmaceutical grade.

Phellandrene is a terpene that is responsible for the highly recognizable aroma of peppermint and has a long history for use as an antifungal agent.

Phyto-cannabinoid Rich (PCR) Hemp is a higher quality full-spectrum hemp plant which is richer in CBD than industrial hemp. PCR also contains all the naturally occurring compounds, including cannabinoids and terpenes.

Phytocannabinoid: A naturally occurring compound present in the resin and leaves of the cannabis plant

Pinene, is a powerful anti-inflammatory, and is found in pine trees and orange peels. 

Plant Sterol: Compounds similar to cholesterol that are naturally occurring in plants and support the reduction of bad cholesterol without significantly affecting good cholesterol

Psychoactive: A term used to describe products that produce a mentally intoxicating “high” or that reduce mental coordination

R

Reproductive System: Also known as the “genital system,” it is a system of sex organs which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction

Respiratory System: The bodily system consisting of organs and structures used for gas exchange, responsible for breathing

S

Salve is an ointment, cream or balm ointment applied directly to an affected area to promote healing of the skin.

Skeletal System: The bodily system known as the framework of the human body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues which protect and support body tissues and internal organs

Smoking Cessation: A temporary or final ceasing of the act of smoking, commonly associated with nicotine and smoking cigarettes

Solvent Extraction, like butane or ethanol to extract cannabinoids from cannabis plants.

Sublingual means the administration of CBD by putting drops under your tongue. This method allows substances to diffuse into the blood through the mucous membrane tissues under the tongue. This method is more immediate and provides higher bioavailability that oral consumption.

Supercritical CO2 Extraction: A common extraction method used to separate CBD from hemp; involves the use of supercritical CO2, which is extremely low in temperature and extremely high in pressure, acting as both a gas and a liquid

Suppository is a solid tablet or capsule that is inserted into the rectum, vagina, or urethra, where it dissolves.

Synthetic Cannabinoid, also known as designer drugs, synthetic cannabinoids are copycat molecules that bind to the cannabinoid receptors in the body to recreate the effects of naturally occurring cannabinoids. Brand names for synthetic cannabinoids include K2, Spice, Black Mamba, Bombay Blue, Genie, Zohai,[15] Banana Cream Nuke, Krypton, and Lava Red. More recently, companies have been creating non-psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids for use in CBD products.

T

Terpene: A large and diverse class of fragrant organic compounds that are produced by a variety of plants and insects

Terpineol is a terpene with a sweet, flowery scent that is frequently used in aromatherapy to help people relax. It is also thought to have antibiotic and antioxidant properties.

Terpinolene, known for having a piney, floral, herbal, and sometimes citrusy aroma, terpinolene a terpene that is found in a variety of fragrant plants including oregano, cumin, lilac, nutmeg, tea trea, and apples. It has potential medicinal benefits from antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties.

Terpsolate: A type of product created by combining a CBD isolate and terpene extract.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9 THC): Commonly shortened to THC, this cannabinoid is the famous high-producing substance in marijuana. In addition to producing a euphoric high, this compound also has been shown via research to carry numerous potential health benefits.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), similar to THC in molecular structure but less psychoactive.

THC: Short for tetrahydrocannabinol, a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis shown to have some benefits on human and animal health while also being responsible for the intoxicating effects normally associated with marijuana use

Thermoregulation: A process that allows the body to maintain its core internal temperature, including mechanisms designed to return your body to homeostasis

Titration, in simple terms, titration means adjusting a dose of medicine over a period of time to discover a dose that produces the maximum benefits with the fewest side effects.

Topical: A product designed for or involving local application and action, typically to the exterior of the body

TrpV1: A vanilloid receptor responsible for the body’s perception of pain and inflammatory conditions

The Endocannabinoid System: is responsible for regulating the neurotransmitters and influencing the neuron communication within the body, specifically in response to the presence of cannabinoids. The system plays an essential role in the development of the central nervous system as well as synaptic plasticity (learning and memory). It is composed of receptors, endocannabinoids, and the enzymes needed for the creation and degradation of endocannabinoids. The main receptors used to mediate endocannabinoids are CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are found mainly in the central nervous system, specifically in the in the cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebellum. There, they are present in the axon terminals and pre-terminal axon segments, towards where they connect. It directs cognitive actions related to coordination, mood, thinking, memory, and appetite. CB2 receptors on the other hand are not nearly as present in the CNS as CB1 and are found in the vascular (blood carrying) and microglia (immune defense) segments of the body to regulate pain and inflammation.

Turmeric oil: is one of the oldest natural remedies throughout history and dates back to 4,000 year old Ayurvedic, Chinese, African and Jamaican medicines. It has even been cited by Marco Polo in 1280 detailing his fascination with its medical potential. It has antioxidant and antibiotic properties and was used as the first painkiller on the silk road. Turmeric naturally boosts the body’s defense system against pathogens and illness. Just adding a drop or two to a warm bath or diffuser can help boost the body’s immune defense throughout cold and flu season. It is known to heal wounds, promote circulation, heal bruising, heal acne, improve skin, and boost mood.

V

Vape: A device that heats and vaporizes a liquid or solid substance and is used to inhale the vapor from that substance through the mouth and into the lungs

VG: Short for vegetable glycerin, a thick, sweet liquid commonly used in vape juices

Vitamin E: Also known as alpha-tocopherol, a fat-soluble vitamin important for normal cell growth and function; it’s also been shown to be good for skincare and nail health

Vitamin E Oil: is most commonly used for cosmetic purposes and applied directly to the skin, however there are many benefits from consuming it as well. It is a fast-soluble vitamin often found in poultry, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. Vitamin E has many anti-inflammatory properties and can help prevent heart disease and cancer as well as promote eye and brain health. It is also used to relieve the side effects of harsh medical treatments such as dialysis and chemotherapy.

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